Complex ecologic

The ultimate goal is to stop violence before it begins. Prevention requires understanding the factors that influence violence. CDC uses a four-level social-ecological model to better understand violence and the effect of potential prevention strategies.

This model considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. It allows us to understand the range of factors that put people at risk for violence or protect them from experiencing or perpetrating violence.

The overlapping rings in the model illustrate how factors at one level influence factors at another level. Besides helping to clarify these factors, the model also suggests that in order to prevent violence, it is necessary to act across multiple levels of the model at the same time.

This approach is more likely to sustain prevention efforts over time than any single intervention. The first level identifies biological and personal history factors that increase the likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence. Some of these factors are age, education, income, substance use, or history of abuse. Prevention strategies at this level promote attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that prevent violence.

Specific approaches may include conflict resolution and life skills training. The second level examines close relationships that may increase the risk of experiencing violence as a victim or perpetrator. Prevention strategies at this level may include parenting or family-focused prevention programs and mentoring and peer programs designed to strengthen problem-solving skills and promote healthy relationships. The third level explores the settings, such as schools, workplaces, and neighborhoods, in which social relationships occur and seeks to identify the characteristics of these settings that are associated with becoming victims or perpetrators of violence.

Prevention strategies at this level impact the social and physical environment. For example, by reducing social isolation, improving economic and housing opportunities in neighborhoods, as well as the processes, policies, and social environment within school and workplace settings. The fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited.

These factors include social and cultural norms that support violence as an acceptable way to resolve conflicts. Other large societal factors include the health, economic, educational and social policies that help to maintain economic or social inequalities between groups in society.

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complex ecologic

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Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Gustafson, Choice, Vol. Model development is of vital importance for understanding and management of ecological processes. Identifying the complex relationships between ecological patterns and processes is a crucial task. This textbook provides a unique overview of modelling approaches.

Representing the state-of-the-art in modern ecology, it shows how to construct and work with various different model types. It introduces the background of each approach and its application in ecology. Differential equations, matrix approaches, individual-based models and many other relevant modelling techniques are explained and demonstrated with their use.

The authors provide links to software tools and course materials. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Register a free business account. Read more. Product details Item Weight : 1. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.

It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There are 0 reviews and 0 ratings from the United States. Top reviews from other countries. Verified Purchase. It is a very good introduction to complex ecological modelling. As a master's student, this book has helped me better understand the main differences between all major techniques of modelling linear regressions, mechanistic models, cellular automaton, agent-based models, etc.

One person found this helpful. See all reviews. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get free delivery with Amazon Prime. Back to top.A social-ecological system consists of 'a bio-geo-physical' unit and its associated social actors and institutions.

Social-ecological systems are complex and adaptive and delimited by spatial or functional boundaries surrounding particular ecosystems and their context problems. A social-ecological system can be defined as: [2] p.


Scholars have used the concept of social-ecological systems to emphasise humans as part of nature and to stress that the delineation between social systems and ecological systems is artificial and arbitrary. Social-ecological systems are based in the concept that humans are a part of — not separate from — nature [8].

This concept, which holds that the delineation between social systems and natural systems is arbitrary and artificial, was first put forth by Berkes and Folke [9]and its theory was further developed by Berkes et al. More recent research into social-ecological system theory has pointed to social-ecological keystones as critical to the structure and function of these systems, and to biocultural diversity as essential to the resilience of these systems.

Until the past few decades, the point of contact between social sciences and natural sciences was very limited in dealing with social-ecological systems. Just as mainstream ecology had tried to exclude humans from the study of ecology, many social science disciplines had ignored environment altogether and limited their scope to humans.

Bateson [12] had tried to bridge the nature-culture dividethe majority of studies focused on investigating processes within the social domain only, treating the ecosystem largely as a "black box" [6] and assuming that if the social system performs adaptively or is well organised institutionally it will also manage the environmental resource base in a sustainable fashion.

This changed through the s and s with the rise of several subfields associated with the social sciences but explicitly including the environment in the framing of the issues. Elinor Ostrom and her many co-researchers have developed a comprehensive "Social-Ecological Systems SES framework", within which much of the still-evolving theory of common-pool resources and collective self-governance is now located.

It also draws heavily on systems ecology and complexity theory. The studies of SES include some central societal concerns e. SES theory incorporates ideas from theories relating to the study of resiliencerobustnesssustainabilityand vulnerability e. Levin[20] Berkes et al.

complex ecologic

While SES theory draws on a range of discipline-specific theories, such as island biogeographyoptimal foraging theoryand microeconomic theoryit is much broader than any of these individual theories alone. Being a relatively new concept, SES theory has emerged from a combination of disciplinary platforms [19] and the notion of complexity developed through the work of many scholars, notably the Santa Fe Institute It can thus be said that complex system theory is a more important 'intellectual parent' of SES.

Studying SESs from a complex system perspective is a fast-growing interdisciplinary field which can be viewed as an attempt to link different disciplines into a new body of knowledge that can be applied to solve some of the most serious environmental problems today. SESs are both complex and adaptivemeaning that they require continuous testing, learning about, and developing knowledge and understanding in order to cope with change and uncertainty.

A complex system differs from a simple system in that it has a number of attributes that cannot be observed in simple systems, such as nonlinearityuncertaintyemergencescaleand self-organisation. Nonlinearity is related to fundamental uncertainty. A consequence of path dependency is the existence of multiple basins of attraction in ecosystem development and the potential for threshold behaviour and qualitative shifts in system dynamics under changing environmental influences.

Emergence is the appearance of behaviour that could not be anticipated from knowledge of the parts of the system alone. Scale is important when dealing with complex systems. In a complex system many subsystems can be distinguished; and since many complex systems are hierarchiceach subsystem is nested in a larger subsystem etc. Self organisation is one of the defining properties of complex systems. The basic idea is that open systems will reorganise at critical points of instability.

High speed computers and nonlinear mathematical techniques help simulate self-organisation by yielding complex results and yet strangely ordered effects. There are several conceptual frameworks developed in relation to the resilience approach.

Berkes and colleagues [6] distinguish four sets of elements which can be used to describe social-ecological system characteristics and linkages:. To remain effective it requires institutional framework and social networks to be nested across scales. The adaptive cycle, originally conceptualised by Holling interprets the dynamics of complex ecosystems in response to disturbance and change.

In terms of its dynamics, the adaptive cycle has been described as moving slowly from exploitation r to conservation Kmaintaining and developing very rapidly from K to release Wcontinuing rapidly to reorganisation a and back to exploitation r.MCED is a textbook presenting an overview in approaches and applications in ecological modelling.

This information platform presents accompanying material and additional sources and hints. Here you find.

complex ecologic

Successively, we will provide also feedbacks, new methods,and other helpful facts. We are looking forward to your feedback! Model development is of vital importance for understanding and management of ecological processes. Identifying the complex relationships between ecological patterns and processes is a crucial task.

Ecological modelling—both qualitatively and quantitatively—plays a vital role in analysing ecological phenomena and for ecological theory. This textbook provides a unique overview of modelling approaches. Representing the state-of-the-art in modern ecology, it shows how to construct and work with various different model types.

It introduces the background of each approach and its application in ecology. Differential equations, matrix approaches, individual-based models and many other relevant modelling techniques are explained and demonstrated with their use. The authors provide links to software tools and course materials.

Introduction Dear colleagues, MCED is a textbook presenting an overview in approaches and applications in ecological modelling. Here you find news about the book and current developments concerning ecological modelling further details about the MCED editors and authors additional material referring to the book chapters, e.

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The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention

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complex ecologic

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Modelling Complex Ecological Dynamics

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Socio-ecological system

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